The first castle of Berat was built on a craggy hilltop in the 4th century BC. It overlooks the fertile valley of the River Osum. The present citadel dates from the 13th century, the Byzantine period. Within the castle walls, people still have their homes (although many have been turned into guest houses). In the 15th century, there used to be 35 churches here, but only ten survive. The most famous church is the “Dormition of Saint Mary Cathedral, which is now a museum housing a fabulous collection of ikons. Sadly, the authorities do not permit photography inside.